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The Anti-Propaganda Tradition in the United States

John Brown

Source documents consulted for this article

Barghoorn, Frederick Charles. The Soviet Cultural Offensive: The Role of Cultural Diplomacy in Soviet Foreign Relations. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1960;

Broderick, Robert C., ed. The Catholic Encyclopedia (Nashville: T. Nelson, 1987);

Bruntz, George G. Allied Propaganda and the Collapse of the German Empire in 1918 (Stanford University, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1938);

Buitenhuis, Peter. The Great War of Words: British, American and Canadian Propaganda and Fiction, 1914-1933 (Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1987);

Carroll, Wallace. Persuade or Perish. Boston, Houghton Mifflin Co., 1948 Madison, Wis.: University of Wisconsin Press, 1990.

Creel, George. How We Advertised America. The First Telling of the Amazing Story of the Committee on Public Information that Carried the Gospel of Americanism to Every Corner of the Globe (New York: Arno Press, 1972) and his Rebel at Large: Recollections of Fifty Crowded Years. (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1947);

Cole, Robert, ed., The Encyclopedia of Propaganda (New York: Sharpe Reference, 1998); Culbert, David, Ed. Film and Propaganda in America: A Documentary History (New York: Greenwood Press, 1990);

Cull, Nicholas John. Selling War: The British Propaganda Campaign against American "Neutrality" in World War II. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995;

Dizard, Wilson P. The Strategy of Truth: The Story of the U.S. Information Service (Washington: Public Affairs Press, 1961);

Doob, Leonard William. Propaganda: Its Psychology and Technique (New York: H. Holt and Company, 1935);

Ellul, Jacques. Propaganda: The Formation of Men's Attitudes. New York: Vintage Books, 1965;

Fraser, L. M. Propaganda (London; New York: Oxford University Press, 1957);

Gary, Brett. The Nervous Liberals: Propaganda Anxieties from World War I to the Cold War (New York: Columbia University Press, 1999);

Johnson, Niel M. George Sylvester Viereck: German-American Propagandist. (Urbana; Chicago; London: University of Illinois Press, 1972);

Lasswell, Harold D. Propaganda Technique in the World War (New York: P. Smith, 1938);

Laurie, Clayton D. The Propaganda Warriors: America's Crusade against Nazi Germany (Lawrence, Kan.: University Press of Kansas, 1996);

Lee, Alfred McClung. How to Understand Propaganda (New York: Rinehart, 1953);

Lee, Alfred McClung and Lee, Elizabeth Briant, Eds. The Fine Art of Propaganda: A Study of Father Coughlin's Speeches (New York: Harcourt Brace and Company, 1939);

Lippmann, Walter. The Phantom Public: A Sequel to "Public Opinion" (New York: Macmillan, 1927) and Public Opinion (New York: Macmillan, 1950);

Mock, James R. and Larson, Cedric. Words that Won the War: the Story of the Committee on Public Information, 1917-1919 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1939);

Qualter, Terence H. Opinion Control in the Democracies (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1985), probably the best treatment of propaganda in the scholarly literature;

Roetter, Charles. The Art of Psychological Warfare, 1914-1945 (New York: Stein and Day, 1974);

Schapsmeier, Edward L., and Schapsmeier Frederick H. Walter Lippmann: Philosopher-journalist (Washington, Public Affairs Press, 1969).

Short, K.R.M., Ed. Film & Radio Propaganda in World War I: A Global Perspective (Knoxville, Tenn.: University of Tennessee Press, 1983);

Smith III, Ted. J. Propaganda: A Pluralistic Perspective. New York; Westport CN: Praeger, 1989;

Sorensen, Thomas C. The Word War: The Story of American Propaganda (New York: Harper & Row, 1968);

Shulman, Holly Cowan. The Voice of America: Propaganda and Democracy, 1941-1945 (Madison, Wis.: University of Wisconsin Press, 1990);

Sproule, J. Michael. Propaganda and Democracy: The American Experience of Media and Mass Persuasion (Cambridge, U.K.; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997);

Squires, J. Duane. British Propaganda at Home and in the United States from 1914 to 1917 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1935);

Taylor, Philip M. Munitions of the Mind: War Propaganda from the Ancient World to the Nuclear Age (Wellingborough, Northamptonshire, England: P. Stephens, 1990);

Tye, Larry. The Father of Spin: Edward L. Bernays & the Birth of Public Relations (New York: Crown Publishers, 1998);

Vaughn, Stephen. Holding Fast the Inner Lines: Democracy, Nationalism, and the Committee on Public Information (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1980);

Welch, David. Germany, Propaganda and Total War, 1914-1918: The Sins of Omission (London: Athlone, 2000);

Winkler, Allan M. The Politics of Propaganda: The Office of War Information, 1942-1945 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1978).



Adler, Selig. "The War-Guilt Question and American Disillusionment, 1918-1928." The Journal of Modern History, 23, no. 1 (March 1951), 1-28;

Albright, Madeleine. "The Importance of Public Diplomacy to American Foreign Policy." U.S. Department of State Dispatch, 10, no. 8 (October 1999), 8-9;

Allen, George V. "Propaganda: A Conscious Weapon of Diplomacy," The Department of State Bulletin, 21, no. 546 (December 19, 1949), 941-943;

Horne, John. "German Atrocities, 1914: Fact, Fantasy or Fabrication?" History Today, 52, no. 4 (April 2002), 47-53;

Laurie, Clayton D. "'The Chanting of Crusaders': Captain Heber Blanklerhorn and AEF Combat Propaganda in World War I." The Journal of Military History, 59, no. 3, (July 1995), 457-481;

Lasswell, Harold D. "Propaganda." In Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences (1937), 11, 521-528;

Lutz, Ralph Haswell, "Studies of World War Propaganda, 1914-33." The Journal of Modern History, 5, no. 4 (December 1933), 496-516; The Public Opinion Quarterly, 7 (Spring 1943), articles on the Office of War Information (OWI).

Roth, Lois W. "Public Diplomacy and the Past: The Search for an American Style of Propaganda (1952-1977)." Fletcher Forum, 8, no. 2 (Summer 1984), pp. 353-396.

Schlesinger, Jr., Arthur. "Walter Lippmann: The Intellectual v. Politics," in Marquis Childs and James Reston, Walter Lippmann and His Times (New York: Harcourt, Brace 1959);

Shulman, Holly Cowan. "The Voice of America, US Propaganda and the Holocaust: 'I Would Have Remembered.'" Historical Journal of Film, Radio & Television, 17, no. 1 (March 1997), 91-103;

Sproule, J. Michael. "Propaganda," in Enos, Theresa, ed., Encyclopedia of Rhetoric and Composition (New York and London: Garland Publishing, Inc. 1996);

[Statement on terrorism by Brian Jenkins] The Washington Post, October 11, 2001, A8;

Startt, James D. "American Film Propaganda in Revolutionary Russia." Prologue, Quarterly of the National Archives and Records Administration, 30, no. 3 (Fall 1998), 167-179;

Wolper, Gregg. "Wilsonian Public Diplomacy: The Committee on Public Information in Spain." Diplomatic History, 17, no. 1 (Winter 1993), 17-34;

Vaughn, Stephen. "Prologue to Public Opinion: Walter Lippmann's Work in Military Intelligence." Prologue, Quarterly of the National Archives and Records Administration, 15, no. 3 (Fall 1983), 151-163;

Welch, David. "Powers of Persuasion." History Today, 49, no. 8 (August 1999), 24-26;

Winkler, Allan. "Propaganda: Necessary but Difficult." History News Service (posted November 20, 2001).

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Created: 4 July 2003.
Updated: 22 June 2008
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